Higher Studies Lobnyeir or Higher Studies in the monastery is a course of study which takes sixteen years to complete. The course includes the arts of healing, dialectics, Sanskrit, arts and crafts, metaphysics and the philosophy of religion, of which the most important are the study of philosophy of religion and dialectics. These are divided into five branches, known by their Sanskrit names: Prajnaparamita - The Perfection of Wisdom (6 years) Madhayamika - The Middle Path urging the avoidance of extremes (2 years) Vinaya - The Canon of Monastic Discipline (2 years) Abhidharma - Metaphysics (2 years) Pramana - Logic, developing mental powers and dialectics (4 years) Written and oral examinations are held every year and the final debate examination twice a year in the 3rd and 12th months of the Tibetan Calendar, on a date set by the Examination Committee. The monks gather in front of the Temple in the presence of Khen Rinpoche. (the Abbot), Kachen Choera (the teacher responsible for debate standards in the monastery), a representative of the Administrators and the Geykoe (the Disciplinarian). Topics to be debated are written on pieces of paper which are picked at random by each candidate, who will debate for and against the particular topic. On completeion of their Higher Studies, the monks attain the Degree of Kachen, known in other monasteries as Geshe Lharampa. Many senior students also take part in the external Gelugpa debating examinations, testing their knowledge against those of other traditions and obtaining the Geshe Degree in addition to their Kachen Degree.